Differences in motivational orientation, exercise activity, perceived competence, and psychosocial well-being between participants in different sport events
Meganck, J., Lintunen, T., Välimaa, R., Tynjälä, J., Vanden Auweele, Y., & Kannas, L.
In the ’60’s and ‘70’s a lot of research was done comparing participants in different sport events. This study extends this approach by introducing concepts developed since:. The aim was to study whether there are differences between the participants of 1) individual and team sports, and 2) no-contact and contact sports in motivational orientation, exercise activity, perceived competence, and psychosocial well-being.
As a part of the 1998 WHO Cross-National Health Behaviour of School-aged Children (HBSC) Study a nationally representative sample (n=4864) of Finnish children in the age groups 11, 13, and 15 completed three scales: Roberts and Treasure’s Perception of Success Questionnaire, Lintunen’s Perceived Physical Competence Scale and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Questionnaire. Data were analysed using ANOVA and Scheffe’s multiple comparisons test.
In comparison with boys participating in team sports, boys participating in individual sports score lower on task orientation, self-perceived physical fitness, level of physical activity, likelihood to be active at the age of 20, and enjoyment of physical education classes.
These results are the same when comparing boys participating in contact sports with those participating in no-contact sports, with the former group scoring higher on all 5 variables.
Girls participating in individual sports scored lower as girls participating both in individual and team sports on self-perceived physical fitness, level of physical activity, likelihood to be active at the age of 20, and enjoyment of physical education classes.
Implications for promoting life-long physical activity are drawn. However, long-term follow-up is needed to clarify the impact of sports choice. Also, cross-cultural comparison would prove interesting.
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